It is ail unquestionable fact that the earth is an extended plane with an irregular land surface, and not of spherical or globular shape with two flattened ends as scientists and astronomers assert in their speculations, and most people believe. Neither is it pear- shaped, as Professor VV. J. Sollas suggested as recently as the 24th May, 1906, at the Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, London.
That the earth is flat can be verified by our senses from every point of view. Practical demonstrations can be given of this shape which should satisfy every unprejudiced and reasonable mind ; and there are numerous references in God’s Iloly Word — the Bible — to an earth of this shape.
I am aware that one of the first questions that globites wijl put to me is : How can ships sail round the world if it is not a globe? In answer to this query, please note that ships cannot sail round the world on a uniform course, whether the world be a globe or a plane. This is impossible except in a latitude which is south of Cape Horn. Land would intervene on every uniform course that lies between this extreme southerly latitude and the Arctic regions. But when airships shall have been brought to a high state of perfection, a globe-trotter will be able to sail round the world on a uniform course by getting into one from a sailing ship when land was in the way, and out of it, back into another sailing ship when water was reached.
The magnetic compass, that would help the globe-trotter to keep on his course, always points to the magnetic north when there are no local attractions. The magnetic north is near the North Pole. The North Pole is the centre of the extended plane — the earth — and not one of the two flattened ends of a globular world as is so often asserted.
It was not by white scientists and astronomers that the magnetic attraction towards the North Pole was discovered, but by learned Chinese who knew then, as their offspring know now, that the earth was flat. Take a piece of cardboard and trace a circle on it with a pair of dividers. The centre point of that circle would represent the position of the North Pole on the fiat earth, the circular line the southern extremity of that earth, and not the South Pole. There is no such point, and there never can be, as the alleged South Pole. Draw another circle from the same centre, so as to be midway between that point and the extreme circle, and this middle circle would represent the Equator.
Place a magnet near the centre of the circles and a sensitive needle anywhere within the outer circle, and the needle would be bound to point towards the centre. This must be so. A right angle on the right side of the needle points east, a right angle on the left side west, and the opposite end of the needle points to the south.
Place one leg of your divider in the centre point and the other leg near the sensitive needle on its right side ; then, by making a circular sweep with that leg of the divider till it touched the needle on its left side, an easterly course would be traced round the flat earth, jtleverse the operation. From the left side of the needle make a circular sweep back to its right side, and a westerly course round the flat earth would be traced.
It is therefore possible to outline and eventually traverse a uniform course round a flat earth by means of a seagoing ship and a navigable airship.
When the petrol launch sails round the islands that stand in the centre of the lakes in the parks of the London County Council, English children get a practical demonstration of the possibility of sailing round a flat earth — the islands representing the earth— in water that is always in its natural state — a dead level.
Let scientists and astronomers, who assert that the earth is a globe, give us a practical demonstration of this by placing a magnet near the North Pole of an artificial globe and a sensitive needle anywhere on its convex surface. If this be done it will be found a matter of impossibility for the needle to point towards this North Pole as a needle does on the natural world, and would do on my cardboard. Let them also give us as practical an illustration of the sailing of a ship on a globular ocean as I have given of an ocean with a flat’ surface in my illustration of the sailing of a petrol launch on level water round the islands in the parks of the London County Council.
A sea-going ship could sail round the navigable world on portions of a uniform course, say like the Equator, in the following manner. It could start from the east coast of Africa at the Equator, and keep along the easterly course till it reached the many islands of the East Indies. It could sail round each ol the islands till it got back to the Equator on their east side ; it could then proceed on its uniform course across the Pacific till the west coast of South America was reached. Then by sailing southerly and around Cape Horn, and northerly till it reached the Equator near the mouth of the Amazon, it could pursue its uniform course across the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea (where it would crass the meridian of Greenwich), to the west coast of Africa, and by again sailing southerly and around the Cape of Good Hope and then northerly it would get back to the point from which it started ; but the ship would have been sailing all the time along a flat ocean, and never along a convex or globular one, and its captain would have been consulting a flat chart, and never a globe to sail it along the desired course.
As it is impossible for any reasonable man to imagine such a feat as looping the loop from the outside of the circular ring, so must it be equally impossible for him to accept the ridiculous dogma of a ship sailing round a globular earth. He cannot accept this without being false to his reason.
If the ship to which I have referred had been sailing along the Equator of a globular earth, every six hours it would have been in the following different positions : At midday it would be in the horizontal position in which all ships appear to our view ; six hours later it would be in a perpendicular position, with its bow pointing downwards ; at midnight it would be topsy turvey upside down; at six a m. it would be once more perpendicular, but this time with its bow pointing upward ; and at noon, twenty- four hours later, it would be back in its former horizontal position.
If, on the other hand, the ship were sailing northerly from the Equator along a meridian : at six p.m. it would be lying on its right side with its masts in a horizontal position ; at midnight it would be upside down ; at six a.m. it would be lying on its left side with its masts again in a horizontal position ; and only at noon, as at the previous noon, would it be in the position in which all ships appear to our view. It would be highly amusing to a reader if 1 were to describe the hourly positions of the ship, but unfortunately very limited space disallows of my doing so.
A ship lying in a dock fully laden has only a few feet of water below its keel. If it draws at noon 18ft. 3m., the minutest observation fails to discover the difference in its drought which ought to take place at midnight when it is upside down. Will scientists explain ?
Having mentioned the meridian of Greenwich, I must point out, in connection with the alleged interference of the London County Council electric generating station at Greenwich with the delicate instruments of the Royal Observatory, that it is the Royal Observatory that should be removed and not the generating station. An observatory ought to be erected on a spot at the level of a large sheet of water, which would serve as a natural horizon. Great Britain is surrounded by such water ; but Great Britain is otherwise unsuited for a proper observatory for reasons which I give in the next paragraph, and also because every meridian that passes through Great Britain crosses the Equator in mid ocean, where a sister observatory cannot be erected.
All are agreed that when we have equal day and equal night twice a year over the earth, the sun is vertical to the earth at the Equator, but it is not generally known that when the sun is in this position— called its equinox— observers at 45° north latitude and 45° south latitude must record 45 0 as the angle of elevation from the horizon to the sun’s centre at noon, and that the spot north or south of the Equator from where the sun is observed at this angle at noon is the spot that marks the exact distance to the Equator as the sun is above the Equator. This spot— on the north side of the Equator — is exactly midway between the Equator and the North Pole. It therefore follows, as a matter of course, that the exact distance of the sun above the Equator at its equinox is exactly half the distance between the Equator and the North Pole.
Two observatories are therefore indispensable, one at the Equator and the other 45 0 north or south of the Equator. There are no such observatories in existence, and 1 venture to say, without fear of contradiction, that there are only two spots in the world on the same meridian — one at the Equator, and the other 45° north or south of the Equator — where the angle of elevation to the sun could be measured from a natural horizon. The Astronomer Royal and his fellow-scientists may have this opportunity of saving their faces by naming the positions of these two spots before I publish them later on.
With observatories at these two spots the distance of the sun from the earth, which is the very foundation of all astronomical researches, could be known exactly. Scientists and astronomers say it is about or nearly 93,000,000 of miles. How did they measure it ?
Here is a practical illustration of the infallible method I have given for finding out the distance of the sun accurately. Take a square piece of paper ■ each of the four corners forms an angle of 90 9 , and together a total of 360° ; the same as the degrees of a circle. The four sides of the paper are of equal length. Fold the paper diagonally, and it becomes of triangular shape. The triangle that it forms is not only a right-angled triangle, but one that has its diagonal at an angle of 45 ° or one half of 90°. As the four sides were of equal length, the two sides that are at the right angles remain of equal length.
Hold up the triangular paper before you with one prolonged side of the right angle pointing towards the centre of the heavens, and the other towards the North Pole, and imagine the corner pointing upward to be the sun at its equinox at noon : that pointing northward to be the spot on the earth which is 45 0 north of the Equator ; and the third corner to be the spot at the Equator which is perpendicularly under the sun at noon when at its equinox. This clearly demonstrates that the spot from where the sun can be seen at noon at an angle of 45 0 above the horizon, is at exactly the same distance from the Equator as the sun is above the Equator, and not a foot more or less. And whether the earth be globular or flat the same method answers for ascertaining the exact distance of the sun.
Scientists and astronomers who hold to the globular world theory have then no excuse for saying the sun is about or nearly so many millions of miles away when there are two spots with natural horizons even on a globular world for ascertaining the exact distance. And it is with their uncertain distance of the sun that they measure the distances of other heavenly bodies. How much better to have an accurate and reliable base with which to make these measurements. Are scientists and astronomers ignorant of this method ?
THE EARTH A PLANE
By JOHN E. QUINLAN, 7, Charlwood Place, Pimlico, London, S.W.